The skin and eyes may appear yellow—a condition known as jaundice and a sign that gives rise to the disease’s popular name. By the time it subsided in November 1793, the disease had killed 5,000 people, or about one-tenth of Philadelphia’s population at the time, and infected hundreds of thousands of others. Er thematisiert geschickt die rassistischen Ursachen des Minderwertigkeitsgefühls und deren Verfestigung durch die heutigen Medien.“, Internationale Kurzfilmtage Oberhausen 2013, Internationalen Kurzfilmtagen in Oberhausen, „Lobende Erwähnung der ökumenischen Jury“, https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Yellow_Fever&oldid=142285419, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“. Make a donation. When the publisher Matthew Carey, who served on the city’s health committee, issued his account of the epidemic beginning in October 1793, he accused members of Philadelphia’s free black community of profiting off the epidemic, even stealing from the houses of fever victims. The virus is spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. Rush was an ardent abolitionist, and had been supportive of the efforts of the city’s black community to form their own churches in protest over the segregation of white-led ones. More-significant reactions — such as developing a syndrome similar to actual yellow fever, inflammation of the brain or death — can occur, most often in infants and older adults. The yellowing occurs because the disease causes liver damage, hepatitis. The yellow fever virus is found in tropical and subtropical areas of Africa and South America. Among the mass exodus of some 20,000 Philadelphians—nearly half the city’s total population at the time—during the yellow fever epidemic were many of the city’s doctors, who were terrified of getting ill themselves. Before the introduction of yellow fever vaccine, the control of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes was the only procedure for preventing occurrence of the disease. Mosquitoes that breed in the jungle also transmit yellow fever to monkeys, who, in addition to humans, are a host for the disease. Yellow fever, acute infectious disease characterized by fever, headache, backache, nausea, and vomiting. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Treatment is supportive and is designed to correct the acid–base imbalance and electrolyte abnormalities caused by vomiting, heart failure, and kidney derangements. But getting a yellow fever vaccine before traveling to an area in which the virus is known to exist can protect you from the disease. Mai 2015 um 20:14 Uhr bearbeitet. The virus is transmitted from animals to humans and among humans by several species of mosquitoes. Yellow fever, acute infectious disease, one of the great epidemic diseases of the tropical world, though it sometimes has occurred in temperate zones as well. Yellow fever is caused by a flavivirus. Side effects are usually mild, lasting five to 10 days, and may include headaches, low-grade fevers, muscle pain, fatigue and soreness at the site of injection. Because of the risk of internal bleeding, avoid aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs if you suspect you have yellow fever. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Reed’s discoveries were quickly taken up by American surgeon William Crawford Gorgas, who was able practically to eliminate yellow fever from Havana, Cuba, through the control of the Aedes mosquito. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2017. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Rush lost his sister to the disease and even fell ill himself, although he recovered. Unfortunately, a third, more toxic phase of infection occurs for 15% to 25% of patients. Allen and Jones’ work was the first copyrighted pamphlet written by black authors in the nation’s history. http://www.cdc.gov/yellowfever/qa/index.html. Illness ranges from a fever with aches and pains to severe liver disease with bleeding and yellowing skin (jaundice). Diagnosis is usually established by blood tests showing the presence of antibodies to the virus and by the patient’s history of having been in an area where the disease is endemic. Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Mayo Clinic School of Continuous Professional Development, Mayo Clinic School of Graduate Medical Education, Book: Mayo Clinic Family Health Book, 5th Edition, Newsletter: Mayo Clinic Health Letter — Digital Edition, FREE book offer – Mayo Clinic Health Letter. People who survive the infection recover gradually over a period of several weeks to months, usually without significant organ damage. Up to 50% of people with the more-severe form of yellow fever die of the disease. Nets that have been pre-treated with insecticide offer additional protection. http://www.uptodate.com/home. During this time a person may experience fatigue and jaundice. An infection with yellow fever typically has three phases. Muscle aches, particularly in your back and knees, Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice), Abdominal pain and vomiting, sometimes of blood, Brain dysfunction, including delirium, seizures and coma. Once the infection enters the acute phase, you may experience signs and symptoms including: These signs and symptoms usually improve and are gone within several days. Yellow fever is a viral infection spread by a particular type of mosquito. Call your doctor right away if you develop a fever, flu-like symptoms, or other unusual signs after taking the vaccine. Use the right insect repellent for mosquitoes on exposed skin and follow package directions. © 2020 A&E Television Networks, LLC. Who Should Not Be Vaccinated for Yellow Fever? The disease, caused by a flavivirus, infects humans, all species of monkeys, and certain other small mammals. The vaccine can cause serious adverse effects in certain people. "The Journal of the American Medical Association: "JAMA Patient Page: Yellow Fever." Accessed March 28, 2017. His introduction of mosquito-control efforts enabled workers to complete the Panama Canal. Protection against mosquitoes, ticks, & other insects & arthropods. Despite extensive research on the disease in the decades that followed the epidemic, it would take more than a century—and a savage outbreak among troops fighting the Spanish-American War—before Dr. Walter Reed proved in 1900 that mosquitoes carried yellow fever. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. There is no specific treatment for those with yellow fever beyond good nursing and supportive care. “It is called a yellow fever, but is like nothing known or read of by the Physicians,” wrote Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson in September 1793. Cover your arms, hands, legs, and head to protect yourself from bites. A highly effective vaccine exists to prevent yellow fever. People cannot spread yellow fever among themselves through casual contact, although the infection could possibly be transmitted directly into the blood through contaminated needles. Environmental Protection Agency: "New Pesticide Fact Sheet: Picaridin.". If you're exempt from vaccination for medical reasons, you may need to provide proof of exemption for entry into some countries. Since then, ravaging epidemics have not broken out as in the past; nevertheless, the World Health Organization estimates that some 30,000 people die each year in areas where yellow fever is endemic. Yellow fever is a very rare cause of illness in U.S. travelers. Recommendations. The yellow fever vaccine is advised for adults and children over age 9 months who are traveling to or living in countries with a known risk of yellow fever. Yellow fever: Frequently asked questions. President George Washington, who returned to his beloved Mount Vernon estate, blamed his exit on the concerns of his wife, Martha.