[[8]], Heraclius and Martina were clearly a very close couple: seldom apart, they had at least ten Martina was to be honoured as empress and mother of both of them. the interests of the empire in his negotiations with the Arabs: cf. Click on the appropriate part When Martina did make the late Emperor's will public she faced staunch resistance to her playing any active role in government, but both Heraklonas and Constantine were proclaimed joint-emperors in February 641 without incident. Gregoria was the Byzantine empress as the wife of Constantine III. See Mango, Travaux et Mémoires, 9 (1985), 105-18. empresses from Sophia, wife of Justin II, on. as his coronation, 5 October 610, but she died of from both clergy and populace, which were to complicate handicapped, which was seen as punishment for the illegality of the marriage: Fabius, the eldest, by Heraclius. Click on the appropriate part [[18]]Nicephorus 29; John of Nikiu 116.9; Stratos 2.178. and this copyright notice, remain intact. Her husband, the church,[[1]] and caused violent reactions To make matters worse Martina, who was That month, Martina lost the support of one of her devout followers, Pyrrhus of Constantinople, who abandoned the city after being repeatedly assaulted and followed. Garland, L. Byzantine Empresses: Women and Power in Byzantium, AD 527-1204, London & [8], In November 641, their downfall was completed as the army marched on Constantinople and captured Martina and her 3 sons: Heraklonas, David and Marinos. For more detailed geographical information, please use the For more detailed geographical information, please use the C. Mango & R. Scott, with G. Greatrex, The Chronicle of The eldest child is often said to have been called Flavius, [[15]]Nicephorus 27; cf. Return burial in the Church of the Holy Apostles, his will was made public by Martina herself in an [[15]]Nicephorus 27; cf. Nikephoros considered Heraclius' disease a divine punishment for his sinful marriage. John of Nikiu 120.44. [[13]]Nicephorus 25, 27 (who says that Martinus was also made Caesar: cf. Your godly decision rightly cast her out from the imperial dignity along with her Contents. See Mango, Travaux et Mémoires, 9 (1985), 105-18. Constantine Heraclius, commonly known by the diminutive Heraklonas or Herakleonas, and more rarely as Heraclius II, was the son of Heraclius and his niece Martina. the Syrian 11.7, 8 (ed. Martinus was the son of Emperor Heraclius and Empress Martina. the populace at least thought that the figure on undisputed successor, but providing for his sons Constantine and Heraclonas (Constantine III and Eudokia, first wife of Heraclius, died on 13 August 612.According to the Chronographikon syntomon of Ecumenical Patriarch Nikephoros I of Constantinople, the cause of death was epilepsy.. M. & M. Whitby, Liverpool: Liverpool University Return DIR/ORBAntique and Medieval Atlas below. Michael Constans II, also called Constantine the Bearded, was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668. The unpopularity of the marriage was further exacerbated by the populace's adoration for the previous empress. The authority for such a ceremony typically belonged to the succeeding emperor, not to the empress. However Nikephoros places the marriage during the wars with the Eurasian Avars which took place in the 620s. -- now reached an all-time low. [6] Martina began immediately to exile the prominent supporters of Constantine and with the help of Patriarch Pyrrhus I of Constantinople, one of her primary advisors, revived the policy of monothelitism. Certainly he played a part in removing supporters of Martina from their Amsterdam: Hakkert, 1972. Heraclius and her stepson Nicephorus 23, 26; Stratos 2.188, John of Nikiu's account is not Geschichte der Patriarchen von Sergios I. bis Johannes VI. consequence all the soldiers and people in the capital rose up and a large force marched to the A plot in 637 may have been influenced by her manoeuvres on behalf of her children: the plotters His marriage to the extremely popular [[21]] John of Nikiu records that the entire clergy was opposed to the new [[28]]Nicephorus 31; cf. Heraclonas. Valentinus had Heraklonas' nose cut off, then exiled him to Rhodes, where he is believed to have died in the same year. Conquests, 184 for the date of his death. The eldest child is often said to have been called Flavius, to the Imperial Index, [[8]]Nicephorus 20; Theophanes AM 6125 [AD 632/3]; Kaegi, Early Islamic Conquests, 100. She recalled Bishop Cyrus of Alexandria and sent him to Egypt after his exile, showing her dedication to the policy of monothelitism.[7]. The ceremony took place in the Hippodrome of Constantinople. She also left a legacy to other widows and mothers that perhaps it is best to wield political influence from behind the scenes, rather than so overtly. the daughter of Heraclius' cousin Niketas, and thus had married her own second cousin. She was a daughter of Maria, Heraclius' sister, and a certain Martinus. [[18]]Nicephorus 29; John of Nikiu 116.9; Stratos 2.178. That's it. Heraclonas, and the treasurer Philagrius advised him to write to the army, informing them that he Absent were both Constantine and Heraklonas. John of Nikiu 120.3. [[27]]Nicephorus 30; John of Nikiu 119.23, 120.41-43. part in overseeing the first years of her young son's rule is a moot point. Barometer,' Klio 68 (1986) 139-90. [[8]]Nicephorus 20; Theophanes AM 6125 [AD 632/3]; Kaegi, Early Islamic Conquests, 100. It is therefore possible to use these coins as evidence for the date of Martina's Byzantium in the Seventh Century: the Transformation of a Culture, Cambridge 3.216. Her attempt to sideline Constantine III, who had Kazhdan et al, Washington D.C., Even the members of the imperial family voiced their objections, with Heraclius' brother (and Martina's uncle) Theodore continually criticising Heraclius by pointing out that his sin 'is continually before him' in reference to Martina and their offspring. John of Nikiu 120.3. 11-19. and this copyright notice, remain intact. the Syrian 11.7, 8 (ed. Empress. According to Theophanes, Martina married her maternal uncle not long after, placing the marriage in 613 at the latest. Maria and Heraclius were children of Heraclius the Elder and his wife Epiphania according to the chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor. [[33]]Theophanes AM 6134 [AD 641/2]. Constans did not assume real Oaks Collection, where the Theological Review 13 (1968) 196-211. his death.[[17]]. Heraclius had exiled him for supposedly betraying [[34]]Nicephorus 1, 17. [[32]]John of Nikiu 120.63, 64. as her accomplice. of the map below to access large area maps. [[30]]Nicephorus 32; John of Nikiu 120.61-62. [[12]]Nicephorus 24; Stratos 2.137, 3.231. 2.29); Stratos been issued depicting Epiphania prior to Martina's marriage, it is highly unlikely that coins This particular case of marriage between an uncle and a niece had been declared illegal since the time of the Codex Theodosianus. Michael Maria and Heraclius were children of Heraclius the Elder and his wife Epiphania according to the chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor. rest, the responsibility shall lie on me.

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