The Prussian tradition to reserve the highest military ranks for young aristocrats was adopted and the new constitution put all military affairs under the direct control of the Emperor and beyond control of the Reichstag. Germanic widows required a male guardian to represent them in court. , Königsberg philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) tried to reconcile rationalism and religious belief, individual freedom, and political authority. The member states largely went their own way, and Austria had its own interests. Cleaning up the heavy air and water pollution became a major industry in its own right. The addition Nationis Germanicæ (of German Nation) to the emperor's title appeared first in the 15th century: in a 1486 law decreed by Frederick III and in 1512 in reference to the Imperial Diet in Cologne by Maximilian I. It became known as the Night of the Long Knives and took place from 30 June to 2 July 1934. Anthony J. Steinhoff, "Christianity and the creation of Germany", in Sheridan Gilley and Brian Stanley, eds., On the Kaiser's "histrionic personality disorder", see Tipton (2003), pp. Instead it now sought to move beyond its old working class base to appeal the full spectrum of potential voters, including the middle class and professionals.  Growing numbers of East Germans emigrated to West Germany, many via Hungary after Hungary's reformist government opened its borders. , Having become wealthy through trade, the confident cities of Northern Italy, supported by the Pope, increasingly opposed Barbarossa's claim of feudal rule (Honor Imperii) over Italy. Austria wanted the duchies to become an independent entity within the German Confederation, while Prussia intended to annex them. , The division of the Carolingian Empire by the Treaty of Verdun in 843, Territorial evolution of the Holy Roman Empire from 962 to 1806, The Holy Roman Empire at its greatest territorial extent under Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II, 13th century, The Holy Roman Empire under Ottonian and Salian rule, 10th and 11th centuries, The Holy Roman Empire around the year 1700, In 936, Otto I was crowned German king at Aachen, in 961 King of Italy in Pavia and crowned emperor by Pope John XII in Rome in 962.  From their homes in southern Scandinavia and northern Germany the tribes began expanding south, east and west during the 1st century BC, and came into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul, as well as with Iranian, Baltic, and Slavic cultures in Central/Eastern Europe. During the 1st century CE Roman legions conducted extended campaigns into Germania magna, the area north of the Upper Danube and east of the Rhine, attempting to subdue the various tribes. Berlin's rapidly increasing rich middle-class copied the aristocracy and tried to marry into it. The Industrial Revolution modernized the German economy, led to the rapid growth of cities and the emergence of the socialist movement in Germany. Adenauer's government also commenced the long process of reconciliation with the Jews and Israel after the Holocaust.  Peace was restored, the bishops returned and the jailed clerics were released. Chivalry and the court life flowered, as expressed in the scholastic philosophy of Albertus Magnus and the literature of Wolfram von Eschenbach.  Morale of both civilians and soldiers continued to sink. Von Ranke, for example, professionalized history and set the world standard for historiography. Although anxious to relieve serious hardships for divided families and to reduce friction, Brandt's Ostpolitik was intent on holding to its concept of "two German states in one German nation. On 30 January 1933, pressured by former Chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservatives, President Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor.. Jarausch, Konrad H., and Michael Geyer, eds. George III, elector (ruler) from 1760 to 1820, never once visited Hanover. The result was that the large landowners obtained larger estates, and many peasants became landless tenants, or moved to the cities or to America. Chancellor Bismarck's imperial foreign policy basically aimed at security and the prevention of a Franco-Russian alliance, in order to avoid a likely Two-front war.  The Hanseatic merchants' overseas economic success corresponded with their globalist mindset. Observers found that even as late as 1890, their engineering was inferior to Britain. The Southern states joined the federal state in 1870/71, which was consequently renamed German Empire (1871–1918). The subsequent management of the two duchies led to tensions between Austria and Prussia. , Bismarck had always argued that the acquisition of overseas colonies was impractical and the burden of administration and maintenance would outweigh the benefits. Germany was to cede Alsace-Lorraine to France. Moreover, Britain, Italy and Belgium undertook to assist France in the case that German troops marched into the demilitarised Rheinland. From 2005 to 2009, Germany was ruled by a grand coalition led by the CDU's Angela Merkel as chancellor. However, the idea of reforming the defunct Holy Roman Empire was discarded. In 1913, the German Chemical industry produced almost 90 percent of the global supply of dyestuffs and sold about 80 percent of its production abroad. In return for German and Austrian support, Italy committed itself to assisting Germany in the case of a French attack. Office of Military Government, United States, divided into four military occupation zones, "Hominids and hybrids: The place of Neanderthals in human evolution Ian Tattersall and Jeffrey H. Schwartz", "Ice Age Lion Man is the world's earliest figurative sculpture – The Art Newspaper", "Ancient DNA Analysis of 8000 B.C. On 9 November 1918, the Social Democrat Philipp Scheidemann proclaimed a Republic. Adolf Hitler in 1919 took control of the new National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), which failed in a coup in Munich in 1923. , The agrarian reforms in northwestern Germany in the era 1770–1870 were driven by progressive governments and local elites. He had a PhD in economics and was more interested in domestic issues, such as reducing inflation. About the same number served in civil aerial defense, 400,000 volunteered as nurses, and many more replaced drafted men in the wartime economy. SPD leader Gerhard Schröder positioned himself as a centrist "Third Way" candidate in the mold of British Prime Minister Tony Blair and United States President Bill Clinton. In the following elections, the Center Party won a quarter of the seats in the Imperial Diet.  For further information, see Germany in 2011. The local nobility who ran the country opened the University of Göttingen in 1737; it soon became a world-class intellectual center. Opponents such as Gerhard Ritter of the Sonderweg theory argue that proponents of the theory are guilty of seeking selective examples, and there was much contingency and chance in German history.
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